Endnotes

INTRODUCTION

Page 3 “millions of dollars on message framing.” E.g., see Frank Luntz, Words That Work: It’s Not What You Say, It’s What People Hear (New York: Hyperion, 2007), p. 239.

Page 3 “language that appeals to them [persuadable voters].” For much more detail about persuadable voters, their ignorance of political facts and their opinions about values and issues, see Bernie Horn, Framing the Future: How Progressive Values Can Win Elections and Influence Policy (San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler, 2008), especially chapter 4 “Targeting the Persuadables,” p. 47.

SECTION ONE – How to persuade

Page 7 “It is extremely rare…to change anyone’s belief.” Drew Westen, The Political Brain: The role in emotion in deciding the fate of the nation (New York: PublicAffairs, 2007), p. ix-xv.

Page 7 “find a point of agreement.” See Dale Carnegie, How to Win Friends and Influence People (New York: Pocket Books, 1990), originally published in 1937.

Page 7 “essential method of connecting…is to empathize.” How to Win Friends and Influence People.

Page 9 “Freedom, opportunity and security …” See Bernie Horn, Framing the Future: How Progressive Values Can Win Elections and Influence People (San Francisco: Barrett-Koehler, 2008). This phrase is discussed throughout the book and polling about the phrase is reprinted on 
p. 145-6.

Page 10 “appeals to the common good.” E.g., Jim Wallis, “Whatever happened to the ‘Common Good’”? Time, April 4, 2013.

Page 10 “our culture is very, very individualistic,” Celinda Lake, presentation of Herndon Alliance research at the FamiliesUSA conference (January 27, 2007).

Page 11 “a lot of voters assume that people in poverty did something wrong…” Pew Research Center/USA Today, “Most See Inequality Growing, but Partisans Differ over Solutions,” January 23, 2014.

Page 12 “work hard and play by the rules.” E.g., Bill Clinton, Back to Work: Why We Need Smart Government for a Strong Economy (New York: Knopf, 2011) p. ix.

SECTION TWO – How to talk about economic fairness

Page 17 “a compelling theme.” For a good discussion about creating a message, see J. Blodgett and B. Lofy, Winning Your Election the Wellstone Way: A Comprehensive Guide for Candidates & Campaign Workers (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2008), chapter 3 “Creating a Message and Delivering It to Your Audience,” p. 35.

Page 18 “everyone gets a fair shot …” Hart/McInturff, NBC News/Wall Street Journal Study #12336 April 13-17, 2012, question 29, where this statement is favored 71-28%.

Page 18 “Polls show this populist message works.” CNN/ORC poll, January 31-February 2, 2014, finds Americans agree 66-31% that “The government should work to substantially reduce the income gap between the rich and the poor;” CBS News poll, January 17-21, 2014, finds that 70% of Americans believe “the gap between the rich and the poor in the U.S. is getting larger”; and see Pew Research Center/USA Today, “Most See Inequality Growing, but Partisans Differ over Solutions,” January 23, 2014.

Page 18 “Our economy is upside down…” Similar to Greenberg Quinlan Rosner Research for Democracy Corps, October 2011, where the statement was favored by 81%.

Page 19 “free enterprise has done more to lift people out of poverty…” see Hart/McInturff, NBC News/Wall Street Journal Study #12336 April 13-17, 2012, question 29, where this statement is favored by 61%.

Page 19 “Americans are in love with small businesses …” Celinda Lake presentation at AFL-CIO, February 17, 2012.

Page 19 “By all means use the populist language of ‘the 99%’ …” Daniel Gotoff, June 20, 2012, presentation at the Take Back the American Dream conference included Lake Research Associates polling that shows 71% of persuadable voters identify with “the 99%.”

Page 20 “Conservatives relentlessly warp markets to benefit the rich and powerful.” Dean Baker, The End of Loser Liberalism: Making Markets Progressive (Washington: Center for Economic and Policy Research, 2011), throughout but especially chapter 1.

Page 21 “American Dream.” For public opinion, see Washington Post-Miller Center Poll on the American Dream, September 29, 2013.

Page 22 “one-third of all the combined wealth…” Lawrence Michel, et al., State of Working America, 12th Edition, (Ithaca, NY: ILR Press, 2012), page 380.

SECTION THREE – How to talk about basic campaign issues

Budgets and Taxes

Page 25 “Americans think… 50 cents of every tax dollar is wasted…” Gallup Poll, “Americans: Uncle Sam Wastes 50 Cents on the Dollar,” September 15, 2009.

Page 25 “voters are wildly misinformed…” CNN/Opinion Research Corporation, “CNN Poll: Americans flunk budget IQ test,” April 1, 2011.

Page 25 “When named program-by-program…Americans favor spending more…” Pew Research Center, “As Sequester Deadline Looms, Little Support for Cutting Most Programs,” February 22, 2103.

Page 25 “About two-thirds of Americans think that the rich…are paying too little…” Gallup Poll, April 4-7, 2013, finds Americans believe 61 percent of “upper-income people” and 66 percent of “corporations” are paying too little in taxes.

Page 27 “voters remain worried about budget deficits and government debt.” Matters in this section were discussed in the Celinda Lake presentation, February 17, 2012.

Page 27 “They think that taxes are unfair …” CNN/ORC Poll, April 13-15, 2012, finds that 68% believe “The present tax system benefits the rich and is unfair to the ordinary working man or woman.”

Page 28 “Don’t say tax relief…” George Lakoff, Don’t think of an elephant, (White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green, 2004), p. 3-4.

Page 28 in “Interestingly, a progressive monologue about taxes becomes less popular if it begins with unfairness and then goes on to say what government could do with the money.” Hart Research Associates, June 4-10, 2012.

Page 29 “one-third of all the combined wealth…” Lawrence Michel et al., State of Working America, 12th Edition, (Ithaca, NY: ILR Press, 2012), p. 380.

Climate Change

Page 31 “This section is an abbreviated version…” Breakthrough Strategies & Solutions, “Climate Solutions for a Stronger America: A guide for engaging and winning on climate change & clean energy,” August 2012.

Page 31 “increasingly severe weather…” National Wildlife Federation, “Global Warming and Extreme Weather,” 2013.

Page 31 “propaganda campaigns…” John Vidal, “U.S. oil company donated millions to climate skeptic groups, says Greenpeace,” The Guardian, March 30, 2010.

Page 32 “climate denial is now a losing tactic…” Yale/George Mason University poll, “Extreme Weather and Climate Change in the American Mind,” April 2013, found that only 10 percent of Americans believe “global warming isn’t happening.” Sixty-five percent believe it is happening and 58 percent say that “global warming is affecting weather in the U.S.” The other 25 percent respond that they don’t know.

Page 32 “solar power is growing at an extremely fast pace…” Brad Plumer, “Are we wildly underestimating solar and wind power?” Washington Post, June 19, 2012.

Page 32 “National Renewable Energy Lab estimates…” National Renewable Energy Laboratory, “Renewable Electricity Futures Study,” 2012.

Criminal Justice

Page 36 “tell voters how your policies will make them safer …” For this explanation in more detail, see Framing the Future, chapter 11 “Talking About Hot-Button Issues,” p. 131.

Education

Page 38 “According to the Gallup poll…” PDK/Gallup Poll of the Public’s Attitudes Toward the Public Schools, 2013.

Page 38 “But surveys of parents show…” Including Hart Research Associates, “Public School Parents and the Promise of Public Education,” July 2013.

Page 38 “Many other polls show that teachers…” E.g., Gallup Poll, “Honesty, Ethics in Professions,” December 5-8, 2013.

Page 40 “The American value behind public education is equal opportunity for all.” For this discussion in more detail, see Framing the Future, chapter 11: “Talking About Hot-Button Issues,” p. 135.

Environment

Page 42 “progressive values that underlie environmentalism…” For this discussion in more detail, see Framing the Future, chapter 11: “Talking About Hot-Button Issues,” p. 136.

Page 43 “fracking.” Kate Galbraith, “Seeking Disclosure on Fracking,” New York Times, May 30, 2012.

Government, Regulation and Social Services

Page 44 “Dēmos…carried out a comprehensive study…” Dēmos, “Issue: What Is Government? And, Can We Talk About Its Role and Purpose More Effectively?” (New York: Dēmos, 2006).

Page 44 “When voters hear the word government …” For this discussion in more detail, see Framing the Future, chapter 9: “Talking About Government,” p. 113.

Page 46 “Even the most basic social services …” For this discussion in more detail, see Framing the Future, chapter 9: “Talking About Government,” p. 117.

Gun Violence

Page 48 “support the 2nd Amendment.” Gallup Poll, “Americans in Agreement with Supreme Court on Gun Rights,” June 26, 2008, found that 73 percent believe the 2nd Amendment guarantees a personal right to own guns.

Page 49 “about 10,000 gun murders, about 100,000 people shot…” Bureau of Justice Statistics, “Firearm and Crime Statistics,” (the latest available statistics are from 2010).

Page 49 “That’s why current law requires…” Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives, “Brady Law,” 2014.

Page 50 “Poll after poll shows…” CBS News Poll, December 4-8, 2013, found that 85 percent of Americans favor “background checks on all potential gun buyers” while 12 percent oppose.

Page 50 “1.5 million illegal gun sales…”, Bowling, et al., “Background Checks for Firearms Transfers, 2009—Statistical Tables,” Bureau of Justice Statistics, October 2010.

Page 50 “International Association of Chiefs of Police…have endorsed…” “Statement of International Association of Chiefs of Police on Gun Violence Reduction Proposals,” January 16, 2013.

Page 50 “Fraternal Order of Police…have endorsed…” Letter of Chuck Canterbury, National President, to Senator Patrick J. Leahy, January 29, 2013.

Page 51 “for nearly 80 years, federal law has banned machine guns…” Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives, “National Firearms Act,” 2014.

Page 51 “the three most prominent school massacres…” Citizens Crime Commission of New York City, “Mass Shooting Incidents in America (1984-2012), 2013.

Page 52 “crime fell by 66 percent.” BradyCenter to Prevent Gun Violence, “Assault Weapons, ‘Mass Produced Mayhem,’” October 2008, p. 19.

Page 52 “The Tucson massacre…was tackled after he shot out his clip…” John Faherty and Dennis Wagner, “Four people key in disarming suspect,” ArizonaRepublic, January 9, 2011.

Page 53 “District of Columbia v. Heller” 554 U.S. 570 (2008).

Page 54 “U.S. v. Miller” 307 U.S. 174 (1939).

Page 54 “existing law forbids…a gun registration list.” FactCheck.org, “NRA Misfires on Federal Gun Registry,” January 25, 2013.

Page 55 “The states with the highest gun ownership rates have more gun violence…” Dave Gilson, “10 Pro-Gun Myths, Shot Down,” Mother Jones, January 31, 2013.

Health Care for All

Page 56 “persuadable voters still know almost nothing about the ACA.” Stan Greenberg, “Obama still needs to sell Obamacare,” New Republic, July 30, 2013.

Page 56 “persuadable voters don’t support repeal.” Paul Steinhauser, “Five things polling tells us about Obamacare,” CNN, March 31, 2014.

Page 56 “Persuadable voters tend to be insured…” United States Census Bureau, “Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage: 2012 – Tables & Figures.” For this discussion in more detail, see Framing the Future, chapter 11: “Talking About Hot-Button Issues,” p. 132.

Page 57 “This language works: We must not put insurance companies back in charge…” Democracy Corps, “Engaging Confidently on Health Care Reform,” August 6, 2013.

Page 57 “And so does this:” Ibid.

Page 58 “$1 billion in rebates…” Cynthia Cox et al., “Beyond Rebates: How Much Are Consumers Saving From the ACA’s Medical Loss Ratio Provision?” Kaiser Family Foundation, June 6, 2013.

Page 59 “the ACA reduces the deficit…” Congressional Budget Office, “Estimates for the Insurance Coverage Provisions of the Affordable Care Act Updated for the Recent Supreme Court Decision,” July 2012.

Page 59 “The Affordable Care Act prohibits cuts in guaranteed Medicare benefits.” Beth Howard, “11 Myths About Health Care Reform,” AARP The Magazine, September 2012.

Immigrants

Page 60 “New Immigration Messaging Project…” See How to Talk About Immigrants in America,” Opportunity Agenda, 2013.

Page 60 “as many as 40 percent of voters believe that ‘illegal immigrants’ should be deported.” CNN/ORC Poll, January 31-February 2, 2014.

LGBT

Page 65 “The LGBT Movement Advancement Project…” The Movement Advancement Project has a series of guides. This section relies most on “Terminology at a Glance: Talking About LGBT People & Equality,” “An Ally’s Guide to Terminology, Talking About LGBT People & Equality” and “An Ally’s Guide to Talking About Marriage for Same-Sex Couples,” 2012.

Page 65 “As recently as 2011, a majority of Americans…” Pew Research Center, February 12-26, 2014 with comparison historical data back to 1996.

Page 65 “marriage equality is approaching 60 percent support…” ABC News/Washington Post poll, February 27-March 2, 2014.

Medicaid Expansion

Page 70 “Because of a 2012 Supreme Court ruling…” National Federation of Independent Businesses v. Sebelius, 132 S. Ct. 2566 (2012).

Page 72 “explains the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities.” January Angeles, “How Health Reform’s Medicaid Expansion Will Impact State Budgets,” July 25, 2012.

Minimum Wage

Page 74 “By margins higher than 2-to-1…” Pew Research Center, “Most See Inequality Growing, but Partisans Differ over Solutions,” January 23, 2014.

Page 75 “persuadable voters will default to negative stereotypes…” Topos Partnership, “Minimum Wage: Presidential Words and Media Reports,” February 2013.

Page 75 “below the poverty level…” U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, “2014 Poverty Guidelines.”

Page 76 “improve pay for about one in four private sector workers.” National Employment Law Project, “Big Business, Corporate Profits, and the Minimum Wage,” July 2012.

Page 76 “about 17 million workers.” Jared Bernstein and Sharon Parrott, “Proposal to Strengthen Minimum Wage Would Help Low-Wage Workers, With Little Impact on Employment,” January 7, 2014.

Page 76 “seven Nobel Prize-winning economists…” Lorraine Woellert, “Seven Nobel Laureates Endorse Higher U.S. Minimum Wage,” Bloomberg News, January 14, 2014.

Page 76 “12 percent of those who benefit will be teenagers.” David Cooper and Dan Essrow, “Low Wage Workers Are Older Than You Think,” Economic Policy Institute, August 28, 2013.

Reproductive Health

Page 80 “Polls demonstrate that Americans want to help prevent unintended pregnancies...” The National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy, “Briefly… Public Opinion on Contraception and Unplanned Pregnancy,” October 2012.

Page 81 “In 2012, federal rules re-confirmed that churches…” Becky Bowers, “The health care law, Catholics and birth control,” Tampa Bay Times PolitiFact.com, February 12, 2012.

Page 83 “Emergency contraception…is birth control…” MedlinePlus, “Emergency contraception,” U.S. National Library of Medicine, 2012.

Page 87 “In 2011 the U.S. reached its lowest abortion rate since 1973.” Guttmacher Institute, “U.S. Abortion Rate Hits Lowest Level Since 1973,” February 3, 2014.

Tobacco

Page 88 “smoke-free workplaces:” See Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids, “Voters Across the Country Express Strong Support for Smoke-Free Laws,” November 2012.

Page 88 “the tobacco tax.” See Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids, “Voters in All States Support Large Increases to State Tobacco Tax Rates,” April 17, 2013.

Page 89 “Scientists report…42,000 deaths…” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Tobacco-Related Mortality,” 2014.

Torts and Civil Justice

Page 90 “Make it clear that what our right wing opponents call tort reform isn’t reform at all …” Matters in this section were discussed in Peter D. Hart Research Associates, July 11, 2007, memorandum on civil justice issues.

Page 91 “The Congressional Budget Office reported…” Congressional Budget Office, “Options for reducing the deficit: 2014 to 2023, Limit Medical Malpractice Torts,” November 13, 2013.

Voting

Page 92 “voter fraud …” See generally, BrennanCenter for Justice and Advancement Project, “Talking About Voting 2012.”

Page 93 “according to a Washington Post poll…” Washington Post Poll, “Fear of voter suppression high, fear of voter fraud higher,” August 13, 2012.

Page 93 “You cannot win the argument by educating voters…” E.g., David C. Wilson, “Public Opinion on Voter ID Laws: Strong Support, Shaky Foundation,” July 18, 2012.

SECTION FOUR – How to talk about partisans, politics, and values

Page 99 “A poll by the Pew Research Center…” PewResearchCenter, “Little Change in Public’s Response to ‘Capitalism,’ ‘Socialism,’” December 28, 2011.

Page 99 “Lake Research Partners looked more deeply…” See Framing the Future, chapter 8 “Talking About Our Philosophy and Ourselves,” p. 105.

Page100 “Don’t call yourself a ‘liberal’ …” Frank Luntz, Words That Work: It’s Not What You Say, It’s What People Hear (New York: Hyperion, 2007) p. 63.

Page 101 “conservative is no insult.” For this discussion in more detail, see Framing the Future, chapter 8 “Talking About Our Philosophy and Ourselves,” p. 110.

Page 102 “Only 30 percent are favorable toward the Tea Party…” PewResearchCenter, “Tea Party’s Image Turns More Negative,” October 16, 2013.

Page 102 “When asked ‘do you consider yourself a supporter of the Tea Party…” NBC News/Wall Street Journal poll, “Shutdown Debate Damages GOP,” October 10, 2013.

Page 105 “Freedom, opportunity and security …” This phrase is discussed throughout Framing the Future. Polling about the phrase is reprinted on p. 145-6.

SECTION FIVE – How to answer twenty tough questions

Page 112 “Polls show that die-hard conservatives think public employees are overpaid …” CBS News/New York Times Poll. Feb. 24-27, 2011.

Page 113 “people favor prayer in schools.” Gallup Poll, August 8-11, 2005.

Page 114 “half of Americans believe in some form of creationism …” Gallup Poll, May 3-6, 2012.

Page 118 “Polls show that voters support drug testing for public assistance …” QuinnipiacUniversity poll, February 9, 2012.

SECTION SIX – How to improve non-verbal communication

Page 124 “According to Albert Mehrabian…” Albert Mehrabian, Silent messages: Implicit communication of emotions and attitudes. (Belmont, California: Wadsworth, 1981).

SECTION SEVEN – How to create a campaign theme and deliver it

Page 137 “The Tully Message Box” Progressive Majority, Candidate Handbook: Developing Tomorrow’s Progressive Leaders Today, Section VIII, or see Wellstone Action, Politics the Wellstone Way: How to Elect Progressive Candidates and Win on Issues (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2005) p. 36.

Have a question or comment? Send us feedback here.


Was this helpful?