The great majority of message framing advice presented here comes from polls and focus groups conducted by Celinda Lake, who is one of the very best pollsters in the nation.

Much of the recommended language comes from research published or provided by: American Federation of Teachers (education); Americans for Tax Fairness (taxes); America’s Voice Education Fund, ASO Communications and The Opportunity Agenda (immigrants); Breakthrough Strategies & Solutions (climate change); Brennan Center for Justice (voting); Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids (tobacco); Dēmos (government); Fair Elections Legal Network (voting); LGBT Movement Advancement Project (LGBT); OMP and KNP Communications (gun violence); Opportunity Action (education); Topos Partnership (wages); and Women Donors Network/Communications Consortium Media Center (reproductive health).

There are several broad message framing projects that deserve special recognition: the American Values Project (; “The True Patriot” and “The Gardens of Democracy” by Eric Liu and Nick Hanauer; Franklin Forum (; the Roosevelt Institute’s Progressive Narrative Mapping (; the Winning Words Project (; and the Hero’s Handbook (

Many thanks for very useful suggestions from Robert Borosage, Robert Brandon, Nancy Schwalb Horn and Tom Moore. And thanks to George Opryszko, the graphic artist who laid out this book, and Michael Weiss, who provided support and assistance throughout the process.

Finally, we very much appreciate all the donors who make Progressive Majority Action Fund possible, especially those who provided support for this publication: Quinn Delaney and Wayne Jordan, Barbara Lee, and Tom Andrews.

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